The 12-year Plan for Scientific and Technological Development (1956-1967): Enactment, Functions and Inspirations
Through an historical review of science and technology in China, from the « methodical execution of scientific and technological work » to the 12-year scientific and technological development outlook programme, it has been demonstrated that the latter programme is a strategic choice to ensure scientific and technological development is in line with the model for socialist modernisation. This article describes the management system in China for science, technology and research, as well as the successes and failures of scientific programmes. It also reveals several aspects of how these programmes were enacted and implemented. Their essence, enactment and implementation methods are gradually changing and systems promoting innovation should be adjusted and improved using the lessons learned from implementing other programmes; furthermore, ‘autonomous innovation’ will require the same courage, audacity and insight as the ‘self-reliance’ of the previous era1.